Logical operators

Logical operators follow this format where Operand 1 must be a register and Operand 2 can be a register or a number Instruction <Destination>, <Operand 1>, <Operand 2> 2. :%d Selects and deletes all in Vim 3. AND returns 0 except when both bits are 1 a. @ AND Example .global _start _start: MOV R1, #5 @ 0101 MOV R2, #9 @ 1001 AND R0, R1, R2 @ Result is 0001 or 1 end: MOV R7, #1 SWI 0 4. ORR returns 1 except when both bits are 0 a. @ ORR Example .global _start _start: MOV R1, #5 @ 0101 MOV R2, #9 @ 1001 ORR R0, R1, R2 @ Result is 1101 or 13 end: MOV R7, #1 SWI 0 5. EOR returns 0 except when bits are opposite (1 1 and 1 0) a. @ EOR Example .global _start _start: MOV R1, #5 @ 0101 MOV R2, #9 @ 1001 EOR R0, R1, R2 @ Result is 1100 or 12 end: MOV R7, #1 SWI 0 6. BIC returns 0 except when the top bit is 1 and the bottom 0 a. @ BIC Example .global _start _start: MOV R1, #5 @ 0101 MOV R2, #9 @ 1001 BIC R0, R1, R2 @ Result is 0100 or 4 end: MOV R7, #1 SWI 0 b. @ Convert to uppercase with BIC .global _start _start: MOV R7, #3 @ Syscall read from keyboard MOV R0,  #0 @ Input stream keyboard MOV R2, #1 @ Read 1 character LDR R1, =character @ Put character in character SWI 0 _uppercase: LDR R1, =character @ Get address to character LDR R0, [R1] @ Load character into R0 @ Zero out 6th bit @ a : 0110 0001 @   : 0010 0000 @ A : 0100 0001 BIC R0, R0, #32 STR R0, [R1] @ Store character with address stored in R1 in R0 _write: MOV R7, #4 @ Syscall to output to screen MOV R0, #1 @ Output to monitor MOV R2, #1 @ # of characters to write LDR R1, =character @ Print character in character SWI 0 end: MOV R7, #1 SWI 0 .data character: .ascii ” ” 7. TST (TeSt biTs) proforms an AND on bits and updates the Zero Flag CPSR a. .global _start _start: MOV R1, #9 @ 1001 MOV R2, #8 @ 1000 TST R1, R2 @ Compare values setting flags BEQ _bit_set @ If set jump to bit_set (Zero Flag Set) MOV R0, #1 @ Set output to false B end @ Jump to end _bit_set: MOV R0, #0 @ Set output to true end: MOV R7, #1 SWI 0 8. TEQ (Test EQuivalence) proforms an EOR on bits and updates the Zero Flag CPSR XIII. Looping  1. Normally looping would look like this a. Loop to 10 r0 = 0 r1 = 1 while(r0 <= 10): r0 = r0 + r1    2. @ Assembly looping to increment to 10 .global _start _start: MOV R0, #0 MOV R1, #1 B _continue_loop _loop: ADD R0, R0, R1 _continue_loop: CMP R0, #9 BLE _loop end: MOV R7, #1 SWI 0 XIX. Conditional Codes  1. You can define is an instruction is executed based on conditions. You do this by ending an instruction with 1 of many 2 character codes. 2. We already saw these codes in action when branching. 3. Here are the codes EQ : Z Set NE : Z Not Set CS : Carry Set CC : Carry Not Set MI : Negative Set PL : Negative Not Set VS : Overflow Set VC : Overflow Not Set HI : Carry & !Zero LS : !Carry & Zero GE : Negative == Overflow LT : Negative != Overflow GT : !Zero && Negative = Overflow LE : Zero || Negative != V 4. Increment r0 until == to r1 a. Python r0 = 50 r1 = 2 while(r0 > r1):     r0 -= 2          b. @ Assembly     .global _start _start:     MOV R0, 50     MOV R1, 2     B _loop          _decrement:     SUBGT R0, R0, R1 @ If R0 is Greater Then R1 subtract 2          _loop:     CMP R0, R1 @ Compare R0 to R1     BNE _decrement @ If Not Equal jump to decrement          end: MOV R7, #1 SWI 0 XX. Barrel Shifter  1. We can move bits left and right which makes for quick ways to multiply and divide. 2. LSL : Logical Shift Left shifts all bits left and moves the highest bit into the Carry Flag (Multiplies Original Value by 2) a. .global _start _start:     MOV R1, #15 @ 1111     MOV R0, R1, LSL #1 @ Shift value in R1 1 bit left and save to R0          end: MOV R7, #1 SWI 0 3. LSR : Logical Shift Right shifts all bits right and moves the lowest bit into the Carry Flag (Divides Original Value by 2) a. .global _start _start:     MOV R1, #15 @ 1111     MOV R0, R1, LSR #1 @ Shift value in R1 1 bit right and save to R0          end: MOV R7, #1 SWI 0 XXI. Memory Storage  1. We have been storing data in registers for the most part, but now we will store it in memory. We store data by referring to that datas address in memory. 2. We can store an address in a register and then use that register to load or store data. The labels we have used are addresses that refer to code, but we can also use them to refer to data. 3. @ Create 2 4 byte variables and give them values of 15 and 30 .data .balign 4 @ Request 4 bytes in the address fifteen: @ Define storage for fifteen .word 15 @ Assign value to fifteen .balign 4 @ Request 4 bytes in the address thirty: @ Define storage for thirty .word 30 @ Assign value to thirty .text .global _start _start:     LDR R1, addr_fifteen @ Load address     LDR R1, [R1] @ Load data using address     LDR R2, addr_thirty @ Load address     LDR R2, [R2] @ Load data using address     ADD R0, R1, R2     end: MOV R7, #1 SWI 0     @ Labels for addresses in the data section addr_fifteen : .word fifteen addr_thirty : .word thirty 4. @ Load values by referring to the addresses using STR .data .balign 4 @ Request 4 bytes in the address fifteen: @ Define storage for fifteen .word 0 @ Assign value to fifteen .balign 4 @ Request 4 bytes in the address thirty: @ Define storage for thirty .word 0 @ Assign value to thirty .text .global _start _start:     LDR R1, addr_fifteen @ Load address     MOV R3, #15 @ Put 15 in R3     STR R3, [R1] @ Put value in R3 at the address in R1     LDR R2, addr_thirty @ Load address     MOV R3, #30 @ Put 30 in R3     STR R3, [R2] @ Put value in R3 at the address in R2          @ Redo last program     LDR R1, addr_fifteen @ Load address     LDR R1, [R1] @ Load data using address     LDR R2, addr_thirty @ Load address     LDR R2, [R2] @ Load data using address     ADD R0, R1, R2     end: MOV R7, #1 SWI 0     @ Labels for addresses in the data section addr_fifteen : .word fifteen addr_thirty : .word thirty XXII. Debugging  1. The debugging tool GDB will be extremely useful with Assembler. If a program crashes it will be helpful to know where the problem occurs if the standard error messages aren’t helping. 2. @ Use this code in this example .global _start _start: MOV R0, #0 MOV R1, #1 B _continue_loop _loop: ADD R0, R0, R1 _continue_loop: CMP R0, #9 BLE _loop end: MOV R7, #1 SWI 0 3. When compiling your program if you want to debug add the -g option like this : a. as -g -o asmtut.o asmtut.s b. ld -o asmtut asmtut.o c. You then start GDB with : gdb asmtut 4. list displays the 1st 10 lines of your code with line numbers 5. You can disassemble your code. To disassemble the code attacjed to the label _start type : disassemble _start a. The 1st number is the location in memory for the instruction. The 2nd is the number of bytes from the beginning of the label or function. 6. By using breakpoints you can step through your code one line at a time and see how register and flag values change. a. b 13 : Sets a breakpoint at line 13 b. delete 13 : Deletes the breakpoint c. run : Run the program up to line 13 d. info r : Return the current register values 1. SP (Stack Pointer): Points to the stack in memory 2. PC (Program Counter): Stores the next instruction to execute e. continue : Runs the code again till the next breakpoint 1. Type continue many times to watch the register values increment 2. Notice that the CPSR is set to 80000010, which means the Negative flag is set because of CMP R0, #9. The top flags are 1000 or 8 f. Type quit to exit the gdb 7. Change make file for easy debugging by adding debug: as -g -o asmtut.o asmtut.s ld -o asmtut asmtut.o gdb asmtut XXIII. Memory Storage  1. Registers need to be clear so we can perform operations so we will store data in memory. To do so we must keep track of where we store data in memory. 2. We can use the directive ADR to load a 32 bit address by passing it a label. a. .global _start _start: ADR R0, info @ Load the address for the data in R0 end: MOV R7, #1 SWI 0 @ Data ADR accesses must be in the .text area info: .word 10 b. make debug c. b 6 info r d. You’ll see that R0 points at the address for the label e. Type x/4w _start to examine 4 Words of data starting at the address for _start and you’ll see your 10 3. We read data using LDR and write it using STR. You hold the address in a register. a. LDR R3, =info @ Store the address for info in R3 b. LDR R2, [R3] @ Load data from the address stored in R3 c. STR R4, [R3] @ Store data in R4 in the address stored in R3 4. .global _start _start: LDR R3, =info @ Load the address for the data in R3 LDR R0, [R3] @ Get the value assigned to the address end: MOV R7, #1 SWI 0 @ Data ADR accesses must be in the .text area info: .word 10 5. We have to request enough space to allow for changes in values or you’ll get a segmentation fault .data .balign 4 @ Request 4 bytes in the address info: @ Define storage for thirty .word 10 @ Assign value to thirty .text .global _start _start: LDR R3, =info @ Load the address for the data in R3 MOV R4, 100 @ Store 100 in R4 STR R4, [R3] @ Move 100 into the addressed space in memory LDR R0, [R3] end: MOV R7, #1 SWI 0 6. We can retrieve the next piece of data in a list by adding or subtracting a value from the target address. 7. With Pre-Indexed Addressing you provide the base address and the offset to the next value. a. LDR R2, [R3, #4] puts the 4 byte value that follows the address assigned to R3 is stored in R2. b. You can also subtract like this LDR R2, [R3, #-4]. c. LDR R2, [R3, R4, LSR#4] : Shifts the value in R3 right by 2 bits and then is added to R3. 4 is used to jump you 4 bytes in to the data.   8. Demonstrate getting different items in the list .data primes:   .word 2   .word 3   .word 5   .word 7    .text .global _start _start: LDR R3, =primes @ Load the address for the data in R3 @ LDR R0, [R3] @ Get the value assigned to the address @ LDR R0, [R3, #4] @ Get the next item in the list LDR R0, [R3, #8] @ And the next item end: MOV R7, #1 SWI 0 9. Read and write bytes with LDRB .global _start    _start:     LDR R3, =numbers @ get address     @ LDRB R0, [R3] @ Load the first byte or number     @ LDRB R0, [R3, #1] @ Get next byte     LDRB R0, [R3, #2] @ Get next byte         end: MOV R7, #1 SWI 0 .data numbers: .byte 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 a. You can also use half words with .hword and ldrh 10. You can load multiple words in registers with a block transfer 11. .global _start _start: ADR R3, numbers @ Get the address LDMIA R3, {R5-R8} @ Store 4 values starting at the address MOV R0, R6 end: MOV R7, #1 SWI 0 .align 2 @ Enforce 2 byte alignment (Must be multiples of 2) numbers: .word 1, 2, 3, 4

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